Timeline of quantum computing and communication

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of quantum computing.







  • R. P. Poplavskii published "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian)[4] which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle.


  • Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden published the paper "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976 (The paper was submitted in 1975). It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables).



  • Paul Benioff described the first quantum mechanical model of a computer. In this work, Benioff showed that a computer could operate under the laws of quantum mechanics by describing a Schrödinger equation description of Turing machines, laying a foundation for further work in quantum computing. The paper[5] was submitted in June 1979 and published in April 1980.
  • Yuri Manin briefly motivated the idea of quantum computing.[6]
  • Tommaso Toffoli introduced the reversible Toffoli gate,[7] which (together with initialized ancilla bits) is functionally complete for reversible classical computation.


  • At the First Conference on the Physics of Computation, held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in May, Paul Benioff and Richard Feynman gave talks on quantum computing. Benioff's built on his earlier 1980 work showing that a computer can operate under the laws of quantum mechanics. The talk was titled “Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes that erase their own histories: application to Turing machines”.[8] In Feynman's talk, he observed that it appeared to be impossible to efficiently simulate an evolution of a quantum system on a classical computer, and he proposed a basic model for a quantum computer.[9]





  • Yoshihisa Yamamoto and K. Igeta proposed the first physical realization of a quantum computer, including Feynman's CNOT gate.[15] Their approach uses atoms and photons and is the progenitor of modern quantum computing and networking protocols using photons to transmit qubits and atoms to perform two-qubit operations.





  • David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa proposed a computational problem that can be solved efficiently with the deterministic Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm on a quantum computer, but for which no deterministic classical algorithm is possible. This was perhaps the earliest result in the computational complexity of quantum computers, proving that they were capable of performing some well-defined computational task more efficiently than any classical computer.
  • Ethan Bernstein and Umesh Vazirani propose the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, It is a restricted version of the Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm where instead of distinguishing between two different classes of functions, it tries to learn a string encoded in a function. The Bernstein–Vazirani algorithm was designed to prove an oracle separation between complexity classes BQP and BPP.
















  • The Materials Science Department of Oxford University caged a qubit in a "buckyball" (a molecule of buckminsterfullerene) and demonstrated quantum "bang-bang" error correction.[47]
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign used the Zeno Effect, repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually "running" the quantum computer.[48]
  • Vlatko Vedral of the University of Leeds and colleagues at the universities of Porto and Vienna found that the photons in ordinary laser light can be quantum mechanically entangled with the vibrations of a macroscopic mirror.[49]
  • Samuel L. Braunstein at the University of York along with the University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency gave the first experimental demonstration of quantum telecloning.[50]
  • Professors at the University of Sheffield developed a means to efficiently produce and manipulate individual photons at high efficiency at room temperature.[51]
  • A new error checking method was theorized for Josephson junction computers.[52]
  • The first 12-qubit quantum computer was benchmarked by researchers at the Institute for Quantum Computing and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario as well as at MIT, Cambridge.[53]
  • A two-dimensional ion trap was developed for quantum computing.[54]
  • Seven atoms were placed in a stable line, a step on the way to constructing a quantum gate, at the University of Bonn.[55]
  • A team at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands created a device that can manipulate the "up" or "down" spin-states of electrons on quantum dots.[56]
  • The University of Arkansas developed quantum dot molecules.[57]
  • The spinning new theory on particle spin brings science closer to quantum computing.[58]
  • The University of Copenhagen developed quantum teleportation between photons and atoms.[59]
  • University of Camerino scientists developed a theory of macroscopic object entanglement, which has implications for the development of quantum repeaters.[60]
  • Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, found that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[61]
  • Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrated the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer.[62]


  • Subwavelength waveguide was developed for light.[63]
  • A single-photon emitter for optical fibers was developed.[64]
  • The first one-way quantum computers were built,[65] where measurement (collapse) of an entangled cluster state is the main driving force of computation,[66] and shown to perform simple computations, such as Deutsch's algorithm.[67]
  • A new material was proposed for quantum computing.[68]
  • A single-atom single-photon server was devised.[69]
  • The University of Cambridge developed an electron quantum pump.[70]
  • A superior method of qubit coupling was developed.[71]
  • A successful demonstration of controllably coupled qubits was reported.[72]
  • A breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon was reported.[73]
  • Scientists demonstrated a quantum state exchange between light and matter.[74]
  • A diamond quantum register was developed.[75]
  • Controlled-NOT quantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits were realized.[76]
  • Scientists contained and studied hundreds of individual atoms in 3D array.[77]
  • Nitrogen in a buckyball molecule was used in quantum computing.[78]
  • A large number of electrons were quantum coupled.[79]
  • Spin–orbit interaction of electrons were measured.[80]
  • Atoms were quantum manipulated in laser light.[81]
  • Light pulses were used to control electron spins.[82]
  • Quantum effects were demonstrated across tens of nanometers.[83]
  • Light pulses were used to accelerate quantum computing development.[84]
  • A quantum RAM blueprint was unveiled.[85]
  • A model of a quantum transistor was developed.[86]
  • Long distance entanglement was demonstrated.[87]
  • Photonic quantum computing was used to factor a number by two independent labs.[88]
  • A quantum bus was developed by two independent labs.[89]
  • A superconducting quantum cable was developed.[90]
  • The transmission of qubits was demonstrated.[91]
  • Superior qubit material was devised.[92]
  • A single-electron qubit memory was reported.[93]
  • Bose–Einstein condensate quantum memory was developed.[94]
  • D-Wave Systems demonstrated use of a 28-qubit quantum annealing computer.[95]
  • A new cryonic method reduced decoherence and increased interaction distance, and thus quantum computing speed.[96]
  • A photonic quantum computer was demonstrated.[97]
  • Graphene quantum dot spin qubits were proposed.[98]


  • The HHL algorithm for solving linear equations was published.[99]
  • Graphene quantum dot qubits were described.[100]
  • Scientists succeeded in storing a quantum bit.[101]
  • 3D qubit-qutrit entanglement was demonstrated.[102]
  • Analog quantum computing was devised.[103]
  • Control of quantum tunneling was devised.[104]
  • Entangled memory was developed.[105]
  • A superior NOT gate was developed.[106]
  • Qutrits were developed.[107]
  • Quantum logic gate in optical fiber[108]
  • A superior quantum Hall Effect was discovered.[109]
  • Enduring spin states in quantum dots were reported.[110]
  • Molecular magnets were proposed for quantum RAM.[111]
  • Quasiparticles offered hope of stable quantum computers.[112]
  • Image storage may have better storage of qubits was reported.[113]
  • Quantum entangled images were reported.[114]
  • Quantum state was intentionally altered in a molecule.[115]
  • Electron position was controlled in a silicon circuit.[116]
  • A superconducting electronic circuit pumped microwave photons.[117]
  • Amplitude spectroscopy was developed.[118]
  • A superior quantum computer test was developed.[119]
  • An optical frequency comb was devised.[120]
  • The concept of Quantum Darwinism was supported.[121]
  • Hybrid qubit memory was developed.[122]
  • A qubit was stored for over 1 second in an atomic nucleus.[123]
  • Faster electron spin qubit switching and reading was developed.[124]
  • Chip constructed by D-Wave Systems Inc. designed to operate as a 128-qubit superconducting adiabatic quantum optimization processor, mounted in a sample holder (2009)
    The possibility of non-entanglement quantum computing was described.[125]
  • D-Wave Systems claimed to have produced a 128 qubit computer chip, though this claim had yet to be verified.[126]


  • Carbon 12 was purified for longer coherence times.[127]
  • The lifetime of qubits was extended to hundreds of milliseconds.[128]
  • Improved quantum control of photons was reported.[129]
  • Quantum entanglement was demonstrated over 240 micrometres.[130]
  • Qubit lifetime was extended by factor of 1000.[131]
  • The first electronic quantum processor was created.[132]
  • Six-photon graph state entanglement was used to simulate the fractional statistics of anyons living in artificial spin-lattice models.[133]
  • A single-molecule optical transistor was devised.[134]
  • NIST was able to read and write individual qubits.[135]
  • NIST demonstrated multiple computing operations on qubits.[136]
  • The first large-scale topological cluster state quantum architecture was developed for atom-optics.[137]
  • A combination of all of the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing through the use of qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions was shown.[138]
  • Researchers at University of Bristol demonstrated Shor's algorithm on a silicon photonic chip.[139]
  • Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble was reported.[140]
  • A so-called photon machine gun was developed for quantum computing.[141]
  • The first universal programmable quantum computer was unveiled.[142]
  • Scientists electrically controlled quantum states of electrons.[143]
  • Google collaborated with D-Wave Systems on image search technology using quantum computing.[144]
  • A method for synchronizing the properties of multiple coupled CJJ rf-SQUID flux qubits with a small spread of device parameters due to fabrication variations was demonstrated.[145]
  • Universal Ion Trap Quantum Computation with decoherence free qubits was realized.[146]
  • The first chip-scale quantum computer was reported.[147]



  • Ions were trapped in an optical trap.[148]
  • An optical quantum computer with three qubits calculated the energy spectrum of molecular hydrogen to high precision.[149]
  • The first germanium laser advanced the state of optical computers.[150]
  • A single-electron qubit was developed[151]
  • The quantum state in a macroscopic object was reported.[152]
  • A new quantum computer cooling method was developed.[153]
  • Racetrack ion trap was developed.[154]
  • Evidence for a Moore-Read state in the quantum Hall plateau,[155] which would be suitable for topological quantum computation was reported
  • A quantum interface between a single photon and a single atom was demonstrated.[156]
  • LED quantum entanglement was demonstrated.[157]
  • Multiplexed design increased the speed of transmission of quantum information through a quantum communications channel.[158]
  • A two-photon optical chip was reported.[159]
  • Microfabricated planar ion traps were tested.[160][161]
  • A boson sampling technique was proposed by Aaronson and Arkhipov.[162]
  • Quantum dot qubits were manipulated electrically, not magnetically.[163]


  • Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble was reported[164]
  • NOON photons in a superconducting quantum integrated circuit were reported.[165]
  • A quantum antenna was described.[166]
  • Multimode quantum interference was documented.[167]
  • Magnetic Resonance applied to quantum computing was reported.[168]
  • The quantum pen for single atoms was documented.[169]
  • Atomic "Racing Dual" was reported.[170]
  • A 14 qubit register was reported.[171]
  • D-Wave claimed to have developed quantum annealing and introduced their product called D-Wave One. The company claims this is the first commercially available quantum computer.[172]
  • Repetitive error correction was demonstrated in a quantum processor.[173]
  • Diamond quantum computer memory was demonstrated.[174]
  • Qmodes were developed.[175]
  • Decoherence was demonstrated as suppressed.[176]
  • Simplification of controlled operations was reported.[177]
  • Ions entangled using microwaves were documented.[178]
  • Practical error rates were achieved.[179]
  • A quantum computer employing Von Neumann architecture was described.[180]
  • A quantum spin Hall topological insulator was reported.[181]
  • The concept of two diamonds linked by quantum entanglement could help develop photonic processors was described.[182]


  • D-Wave claimed a quantum computation using 84 qubits.[183]
  • Physicists created a working transistor from a single atom.[184][185]
  • A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond was reported.[186]
  • Creation of a 300 qubit/particle quantum simulator was reported.[187][188]
  • Demonstration of topologically protected qubits with an eight-photon entanglement was reported; a robust approach to practical quantum computing.[189]
  • 1QB Information Technologies (1QBit) was founded; the world's first dedicated quantum computing software company.[190]
  • The first design of a quantum repeater system without a need for quantum memories was reported.[191]
  • Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers was reported.[192][193]
  • The theory of Bell-based randomness expansion with reduced assumption of measurement independence was reported.[194]
  • New low overhead method for fault-tolerant quantum logic was developed called lattice surgery.[195]


  • Coherence time of 39 minutes at room temperature (and 3 hours at cryogenic temperatures) was demonstrated for an ensemble of impurity-spin qubits in isotopically purified silicon.[196]
  • Extension of time for a qubit maintained in superimposed state for ten times longer than what has ever been achieved before was reported.[197]
  • The first resource analysis of a large-scale quantum algorithm using explicit fault-tolerant, error-correction protocols was developed for factoring.[198]



  • Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time were documented.[207]
  • Quantum information encoded by simple electrical pulses was documented.[208]
  • Quantum error detection code using a square lattice of four superconducting qubits was documented.[209]
  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announced on June 22 that it had broken the 1,000-qubit barrier.[210]
  • A two-qubit silicon logic gate was successfully developed.[211]
  • A quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, was emulated by a classical analog computer, with the result that the fully classical system behaved like a true quantum computer.[212]


  • Physicists led by Rainer Blatt joined forces with scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), led by Isaac Chuang, to efficiently implement Shor's algorithm in an ion-trap-based quantum computer.[213]
  • IBM released the Quantum Experience, an online interface to their superconducting systems. The system is immediately used to publish new protocols in quantum information processing.[214][215]
  • Rubayet Hossain (Omi), the former intelligent systems researcher of DARPA in collaboration with the researchers of QuAIL develop the world's first user-interactive operating system to be used in commercial quantum computers. And Intel confirms development of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip.[216]
  • Google, using an array of 9 superconducting qubits developed by the Martinis group and UCSB, simulated a hydrogen molecule.[217]
  • Scientists in Japan and Australia invented a quantum version of a Sneakernet communications system.[218]


  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announced general commercial availability of the D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, which it claimed has 2000 qubits.[219]
  • A blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer was published.[220]
  • IBM unveiled a 17-qubit quantum computer—and a better way of benchmarking it.[221]
  • Scientists built a microchip that generates two entangled qudits each with 10 states, for 100 dimensions total.[222]
  • Microsoft revealed Q#, a quantum programming language integrated with its Visual Studio development environment. Programs can be executed locally on a 32-qubit simulator, or a 40-qubit simulator on Azure.[223]
  • IBM revealed a working 50-qubit quantum computer that can maintain its quantum state for 90 microseconds.[224]
  • The first teleportation using a satellite, connecting ground stations over a distance of 1400 km apart was announced.[225] Previous experiments were at Earth, at shorter distances.


  • MIT scientists reported the discovery of a new triple-photon form of light.[226][227]
  • Oxford researchers successfully use a trapped-ion technique, where they placed two charged atoms in a state of quantum entanglement to speed up logic gates by a factor of 20 to 60 times, as compared with the previous best gates, translated to 1.6 microseconds long, with 99.8% precision.[228]
  • QuTech successfully tested a silicon-based 2-spin-qubit processor.[229]
  • Google announced the creation of a 72-qubit quantum chip, called "Bristlecone",[230] achieving a new record.
  • Intel began testing a silicon-based spin-qubit processor manufactured in the company's D1D fab in Oregon.[231]
  • Intel confirmed development of a 49-qubit superconducting test chip, called "Tangle Lake".[232]
  • Japanese researchers demonstrated universal holonomic quantum gates.[233]
  • An integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables was documented.[234]
  • On December 17, 2018, the company IonQ introduced the first commercial trapped-ion quantum computer, with a program length of over 60 two-qubit gates, 11 fully connected qubits, 55 addressable pairs, one-qubit gate error of <0.03% and two-qubit gate error of <1.0%.[235][236]
  • On December 21, 2018, the National Quantum Initiative Act was signed into law by President Donald Trump, establishing the goals and priorities for a 10-year plan to accelerate the development of quantum information science and technology applications in the United States.[237][238][239]


IBM Q System One (2019), the first circuit-based commercial quantum computer



  • UNSW Sydney develops a way of producing 'hot qubits' – quantum devices that operate at 1.5 kelvins.[249][when?]
  • Griffith University, UNSW and UTS, in partnership with seven universities in the United States, develop noise cancelling for quantum bits via machine learning, taking quantum noise in a quantum chip down to 0%.[250][251]
  • UNSW performed electric nuclear resonance to control single atoms in electronic devices.[252][when?]
  • University of Tokyo and Australian scientists created and successfully tested a solution to the quantum wiring problem, creating a 2D structure for qubits. Such structure can be built using existing integrated circuit technology and has a considerably lower cross-talk.[253][when?]
  • 16 January – Quantum physicists reported the first direct splitting of one photon into three using spontaneous parametric down-conversion and which may have applications in quantum technology.[254][255]
  • 11 February – Quantum engineers reported that they had created artificial atoms in silicon quantum dots for quantum computing and that artificial atoms with a higher number of electrons can be more stable qubits than previously thought possible. Enabling silicon-based quantum computers may make it possible to reuse the manufacturing technology of "classical" modern-day computer chips among other advantages.[256][257]
  • 14 February – Quantum physicists developed a novel single-photon source which may allow bridging of semiconductor-based quantum-computers that use photons by converting the state of an electron spin to the polarisation of a photon. They showed that they can generate a single photon in a controlled way without the need for randomly formed quantum dots or structural defects in diamonds.[258][259]
  • 25 February – Scientists visualized a quantum measurement: by taking snapshots of ion states at different times of measurement via coupling of a trapped ion qutrit to the photon environment, they showed that the changes of the degrees of superpositions, and therefore of probabilities of states after measurement, happens gradually under the measurement influence.[260][261]
  • Working IQM Quantum Computer installed in Espoo, Finland in 2020
    2 March – Scientists reported to have achieved repeated quantum nondemolition measurements of an electron's spin in a silicon quantum dot: measurements that don't change the electron's spin in the process.[262][263]
  • 11 March – Quantum engineers reported to have managed to control the nucleus of a single atom using only electric fields. This was first suggested to be possible in 1961 and may be used for silicon quantum computers that use single-atom spins without needing oscillating magnetic fields. This may be especially useful for nanodevices, for precise sensors of electric and magnetic fields, as well as for fundamental inquiries into quantum nature.[264][265]
  • 19 March – A US Army laboratory announces that its scientists analysed a Rydberg sensor's sensitivity to oscillating electric fields over an enormous range of frequencies—from 0 to 10^12 Hz (the spectrum to 0.3 mm wavelength). The Rydberg sensor may potentially be used detect communications signals as it could reliably detect signals over the entire spectrum and compare favourably with other established electric field sensor technologies, such as electro-optic crystals and dipole antenna-coupled passive electronics.[266][267]
  • 23 March – Researchers reported that they corrected for signal loss in a prototype quantum node that can catch, store and entangle bits of quantum information. Their concepts could be used for key components of quantum repeaters in quantum networks and extend their longest possible range.[268][269]
  • 15 April – Researchers demonstrated a proof-of-concept silicon quantum processor unit cell which works at 1.5 kelvins – many times warmer than common quantum processors that are being developed. The finding may enable the integration of classical control electronics with a qubit array and substantially reduce costs. The cooling requirements necessary for quantum computing have been called one of the toughest roadblocks in the field.[270][271][272][273]
  • 16 April – Scientists proved the existence of the Rashba effect in bulk perovskites. Previously researchers have hypothesized that the materials' extraordinary electronic, magnetic and optical properties – which make it a commonly used material for solar cells and quantum electronics – are related to this effect which to date had not been proven to be present in the material.[274][275]
  • 8 May – Researchers reported to have developed a proof-of-concept of a quantum radar using quantum entanglement and microwaves which may potentially be useful for the development of improved radar systems, security scanners and medical imaging systems.[276][277][278]
  • 12 May – Researchers reported to have developed a method to selectively manipulate a layered manganite's correlated electrons' spin state while leaving its orbital state intact using femtosecond X-ray laser pulses. This may indicate that orbitronics – using variations in the orientations of orbitals – may be used as the basic unit of information in novel IT devices.[279][280]
  • 19 May – Researchers reported to have developed the first integrated silicon on-chip low-noise single-photon source compatible with large-scale quantum photonics.[281][282][283]
  • 11 June – Scientists reported the generation of rubidium Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) in the Cold Atom Laboratory aboard the International Space Station under microgravity which could enable improved research of BECs and quantum mechanics, whose physics are scaled to macroscopic scales in BECs, support long-term investigations of few-body physics, support the development of techniques for atom-wave interferometry and atom lasers and verified the successful operation of the laboratory.[284][285][286]
  • 15 June – Scientists report the development of the smallest synthetic molecular motor, consisting of 12 atoms and a rotor of 4 atoms, shown to be capable of being powered by an electric current using an electron scanning microscope and moving even with very low amounts of energy due to quantum tunneling.[287][288][289]
  • 17 June – Quantum scientists reported the development of a system that entangled two photon quantum communication nodes through a microwave cable that can send information in between without the photons being sent through, or occupying, the cable. On 12 June it was reported that they also, for the first time, entangled two phonons as well as erase information from their measurement after the measurement had been completed using delayed-choice quantum erasure.[290][291][292][293]
  • 13 August – Universal coherence protection was reported to have been achieved in a solid-state spin qubit, a modification that allows quantum systems to stay operational (or "coherent") for 10,000 times longer than before.[294][295]
  • 26 August – Scientists reported that ionizing radiation from environmental radioactive materials and cosmic rays may substantially limit the coherence times of qubits if they aren't shielded adequately.[296][297][298]
  • Google Sycamore quantum computer processor in 2019
    28 August – Quantum engineers working for Google reported the largest chemical simulation on a quantum computer – a Hartree–Fock approximation with Sycamore paired with a classical computer that analyzed results to provide new parameters for a 12-qubit system.[299][300][301]
  • 2 September – Researchers presented an eight-user city-scale quantum communication network, located in Bristol, using already deployed fibres without active switching or trusted nodes.[302][303]
  • 21 September – Researchers reported the achievement of quantum entanglement between the motion of a millimetre-sized mechanical oscillator and a disparate distant spin system of a cloud of atoms.[304][305]
  • 3 December – Chinese researchers claimed to have achieved quantum supremacy, using a photonic peak 76-qubit system (43 average) known as Jiuzhang, which performed calculations at 100 trillion times the speed of classical supercomputers.[306][307][308]
  • 21 December – Publication of research of "counterfactual quantum communication" – whose first achievement was reported in 2017 – by which information can be exchanged without any physical particle traveling between observers and without quantum teleportation.[309] The research suggests that this is based on some form of relation between the properties of modular angular momentum.[310][311][312]


  • 17 June – Austrian, German and Swiss researchers presented a two 19-inch rack quantum computing demonstrator, the world's first quality standards-meeting compact quantum computer.[331][332]
  • 7 July – American researchers presented a programmable quantum simulator that can operate with 256 qubits,[333][334] and on the same date and journal another team presented a quantum simulator of 196 Rydeberg atoms trapped in optical tweezers.[335]
  • 25 October – Chinese researchers reported that they have developed the world's fastest programmable quantum computers. The photon-based Jiuzhang 2 was claimed to be able to calculate a task in one millisecond, that otherwise would had taken a conventional computer 30 trillion years to complete. Additionally, Zuchongzhi 2 is a 66-qubit programmable superconducting quantum computer that was claimed to be the world's fastest quantum computer that can run a calculation task one million times more complex than Google's Sycamore, as well as being 10 million times faster.[336][337]
  • 11 November – The first simulation of baryons on a quantum computer is reported by University of Waterloo.[338][339]
  • 16 November – IBM claims that it has created a 127 quantum bit processor, 'IBM Eagle', which according to a report is the most powerful quantum processor known. According to the report, the company had not yet published an academic paper describing its metrics, performance or abilities.[340][341]


  • 18 January – Europe's first quantum annealer with more than 5,000 qubits was presented in Jülich, Germany.[342]
  • 24 March – The first prototype, photonic, quantum memristive device, for neuromorphic (quantum-) computers and artificial neural networks, that is "able to produce memristive dynamics on single-photon states through a scheme of measurement and classical feedback" is invented.[343][344]
  • 14 April – The Quantinuum System Model H1-2 doubled its performance claiming to be the first commercial quantum computer to pass quantum volume 4096.[345]
  • 26 May – A universal set of computational operations on fault-tolerant quantum bits is demonstrated by a team of experimental physicists in Innsbruck, Austria.[346]
  • 22 June – The world's first quantum computer integrated circuit is demonstrated.[347][348]
  • 28 June – Physicists report that interstellar quantum communication by other civilizations could be possible and may be advantageous, identifying some potential challenges and factors for detecting such. They may use, for example, X-ray photons for remotely established quantum communications and quantum teleportation as the communication mode.[349][350]
  • 21 July – A universal qudit quantum processor is demonstrated with trapped ions.[351]
  • 15 August – Nature Materials publishes the first work showing optical initialization and coherent control of nuclear spin qubits in 2D materials (an ultrathin hexagonal boron nitride).[352]
  • 24 August – Nature publishes the first research related to a set of 14 photons entangled with high efficiency and in a defined way.[353]
  • 26 August – Created photon pairs at several different frequencies using optical ultra-thin resonant metasurfaces made up of arrays of nanoresonators.[354]
  • 29 August – Physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics deterministically generated entangled graph states of up to 14 photons using a trapped rubidium atom in a optical cavity.[355]
  • 2 September – Researchers from The University of Tokyo and other Japanese institutions developed a systematic method that applies optimal control theory (GRAPE algorithm) to identify the theoretically optimal sequence from among all conceivable quantum operation sequences. It is necessary to complete the operations within the time that the coherent quantum state is maintained.[356]
  • 30 September – Researchers at University of New South Wales achieved a coherence time of two milliseconds, 100 times higher than the previous benchmark in the same quantum processor.[357]
  • 9 November – IBM presents its 433-qubit 'Osprey' quantum processor, the successor to its Eagle system.[358][359]
  • 1 December – The world's first portable quantum computer entered into commerce in Japan. They are based on the Nuclear magnetic resonance and Dimethylphosphite.[360][361][362]


  • 3 February – At the University of Innsbruck researchers entangled two ions over a distance of 230 meters.[363]
  • 8 February – Alpine Quantum Technologies (AQT) demonstrated a quantum volume of 128 on its 19-inch rack-compatible quantum computer system PINE – a new record in Europe.[364]
  • 27 March – India's first quantum computing-based telecom network link was inaugurated.[365]
  • 14 June – IBM computer scientists report that a quantum computer produced better results for a physics problem than a conventional supercomputer.[366][367]
  • 21 June - Microsoft declares that it is working on a topological quantum computer based on Majorana fermions, with the aim of arriving within 10 years at a computer capable of carrying out at least one million operations per second with an error rate of one operation every 1,000 billion (corresponding to 11 uninterrupted days of calculation).[368]
  • 24 October - Atom Computing announced that it has "created a 1,225-site atomic array, currently populated with 1,180 qubits",[369] based on Rydberg atoms.[370]

See also[edit]


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  7. ^ Technical Report MIT/LCS/TM-151 (1980) and an adapted and condensed version: Toffoli, Tommaso (1980). "Reversible computing" (PDF). In J. W. de Bakker and J. van Leeuwen (ed.). Automata, Languages and Programming. Automata, Languages and Programming, Seventh Colloquium. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 85. Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands: Springer Verlag. pp. 632–644. doi:10.1007/3-540-10003-2_104. ISBN 3-540-10003-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2010.
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